Introdcution of Superhard Materials
As the name suggests, superhard materials are extremely hard materials. Generally speaking, diamond has the highest hardness, with a Mohs hardness of 10, and the hardness of cBN is slightly lower than that of diamond, so superhard materials usually refer to diamond and cBN, or composite materials made of these two materials as the main components. Superhard materials are also known as the hardest and sharpest “industrial teeth” or “king of materials”.
Structure and properties of superhard materials
1. The structure and properties of diamond
Like other carbon materials, the main chemical element of diamond is carbon. Whether it is natural diamond or synthetic diamond, no matter which kind of diamond will contain more or less impurities.
Classification of diamonds
In recent years, carbon materials are a class of materials with a very hot research interest. The 21st century is also known as the “carbon age”. Carbon materials are widely used in various fields for their excellent and outstanding properties, especially in the application of national strategic emerging industries, graphene and carbon nanomaterials, carbon fibers and their composite materials, diamond, carbon-based films and traditional carbon materials ( Carbon black, porous carbon, graphite, special graphite, etc.) have broad application prospects in lithium batteries, capacitors, energy storage, photovoltaics, semiconductors, optoelectronic displays, 5G communications, sensors, general aviation, future transportation, and high-end equipment.
2. The structure and properties of cBN
Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is the second largest variety of superhard materials. The chemical structural formula of boron nitride is BN, which is composed of two elements, boron and nitrogen. Boron nitride has four different crystal structures, mainly hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), cubic boron nitride (cBN), rhombohedral boron nitride (rBN) and dense hexagonal boron nitride (wBN). Among them, nitrogen and boron atoms in hBN and rBN are hybridized in SP2 mode, while nitrogen and boron atoms in cBN and wBN are hybridized in SP3 mode.
Application of superhard materials
Superhard materials and their product tools have been widely used in the industry, not only solving the problems that cannot be processed or difficult to process with traditional tools, but also significantly improving the efficiency of traditional processing and significantly reducing consumption and waste emissions.
The main varieties of superhard material products and tools are sawing tools, abrasives (including bonded abrasives, coated abrasives and loose abrasives), cutting tools, drilling tools, dressing tools, wire drawing dies, other tools and different functions components.
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